A systematic failure

THE MARKS MODERATION POLICY AND VARIED GRACE MARKS AMONG VARIOUS BOARDS WAS MISUSED TO SHOW BETTER PERFORMANCES. IT PUTS THE STUDENTS AT RISK

THE CBSE cannot hold, everything seems to be in chaos. The Delhi High Court (HC) asked the Central Board of Secondary Education to retain the moderation policy for Class X and XII exams, which hikes the marks of the students. This forced the board to withhold the results as all the papers. Millions of students will have to be re-evaluated. However, Delhi University (DU) has begun its admission process for the under-graduate courses. The Class XII CBSE students and their parents are obviously anxious.

The human resources development minister, Prakash Javedekar has consoled students that the result would be on time, but it’s already May 26 and last year the result was declared on May 21. Looking at the scenario, the Indian universities may wait, but what about those students who have applied in foreign universities? Worse, if the marks come out without moderation, i.e. lower than expected.
Patriot/ PTI

There are other complications. Several state boards, like Punjab, Karnataka and Kerala, have announced their results. They, in line with the earlier decision taken along with CBSE, did away with the moderation policy in the evaluations. Logically, the pass percentages in Punjab and Karnataka, as well as the overall percentages in the various subjects, came down by 7-14%. In Kerala, they went up despite the non-moderation. These students may now clamour for a reevaluation under the moderation policy, so that they are on a level-playing field. Balbir Singh Dhol, who was heading the Punjab board, has resigned under the wake of the current context, following the instruction of the chief minister Amarinder Singh.

Add to this the media reports that the CBSE is likely to challenge the HC order in the Supreme Court. Now, the students will need to wait for the apex court’s decision, which can go either way. The chaos compounds. However, the confusion is a direct result of the CBSE’s hurried decision. On April 24, 2017, just a month before it was to announce its results on May 24, the CBSE with 31 state boards, decided to scrap the marks moderation policy (MMP), which started in 1992.

The fact that the decision wasn’t thought through was clear when CBSE asked DU to give weightage to the (possibly lower) marks scored by its students. The board felt that the latter would be at a disadvantage against students, whose boards followed MMP and, thus, gave higher marks. This was before the HC order, and it highlighted that the board felt that the non-MMP decision would create a skew against certain sets of students.

The idea behind MMP was good. It was introduced because of several factors: evaluators’ different marking style and the need to standardise them; and, that students should be rewarded if they attempted the tough questions in different question paper sets. In practice, the policy was abused and misused. It was largely used by the various boards to give higher mark to their students to both improve the overall pass percentages, and prove that their students were better than the others. The result: percentages zoomed in the last few years and masked students’ true potential.

Recently, Assam’s education minister Himanta Biswa Sarma revealed that the state board manipulated the pass percentages of Class X students. Last year, the CBSE too gave an extra 16 marks each in mathematics to students, and Punjab gave a grace of 27 marks each to Class X students. As per media reports, CBSE’s 95%-plus club grew 23 times from 384 in 2008 to 8,971 in 2014. Thus, colleges like Shri Ram College of Commerce and Lady Shri Ram College for Women announced a 100.75% (Economics-H for non-commerce students) and 100.5% (Psychology) cut-off in 2011 and 2015, respectively. This pushed the students into a rat race, as they gave up co-curricular activities, took multiple tuitions, and preferred to learn by rote, rather than understand the concepts. Globally, a balanced weightage is maintained between curriculum and co-curricular activities, and the choice of subject combination is also independent.

After April 24, while some welcomed the non-moderation move, others condemned it for taking the decision without prior and adequate notice to the students. Patriot spoke to parents of the CBSE students, who explained that the irregularity of the board’s decisions had impacted their children’s future. Moyna Jana, a mother of a college-goer now, said that the board lacked clarity. Initially, the CBSE made board exams optional for Class X, then it wanted to re-introduce board exams in Class V and VIII, which it never did.

 A student, who didn’t sit for the Class X board in 2015 — the year it was scrapped — revealed that he was among the brightest students in his school. But possibly because of the lack of experience in appearing for board exams, his Class XII results were not up to the expectations. Consequently, he could not get admission in a better college, and is now studying in a private one and, that too, after going through a year of coaching.

Another mother, Geeta Devi talks about the unfairness of having the first brush with board exams in Class X, “The first time students get to choose their subjects in Class XI, which depends on the result of Class X. The latter is the first external evaluation, and the results differ from the internal ones. Students should get an idea of external evaluation beforehand, may be in Class IX or VIII. One needs to replace the final exam with external one.”

The article is the updated version of what was published in Patriot

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Being Human

The speed at which the artifical intelligence is growing in the world, the day is not too far, when apart from women or the LGBT communities, there would be the community of superhumans fighting for their rights.

Post-production days are close to ‘no work’ days in an office of a periodic publication. I was reading a random book when I heard a ping. It was a news app notification updating me of a growing crowd at different places across the world: From New Delhi’s Jantar Mantar to the Altamira Square of Venezuela, Kiev’s Independence Square (Ukraine), Rio de Janeiro, Eiffel Tower, Wall Street and so forth. The crowd is protesting to seek equal rights as that of ‘humans’. And I went back in memory lane about decades ago.

Jantar Mantar has been famous for its protest culture since the independence era. It’s been centuries that we have sought independence from the British imperialism. But haven’t recieved freedom in a true sense. The fight for equality still continues. The fight against the discrimination based on race, caste, gender, sexual preference and so on, among the humans at different parts of the world, have not even accomplished yet. And here we have, these superhumans fighting for their right to access the public spaces, that were originally dedicated for humans, to have a law board monitoring the work sought from them, to have typical working hours and week-offs, remuneration, consent for sex, right ot property, royalty claim on their work and so on.

Well, this is a futuristic account of a day when artificial intelligence would have grown at a rampant speed and the concept of superhumans with emotions would have become a reality. The day that marks the beginning for the end of humanity, as also predicted by many experts including renowned physicist Stephen Hawking.

Robots were invented to minimise human labour. But the increasing automation has triggered a major threat of unemployment: more at labour sector than the areas that still require human analytical skills, although the latter ain’t spared for long. An analysis by PricewaterhouseCoopers, an accounting and consulting firm, has predicted that about 40% of jobs at the United States could be taken over by robots in next 15 years; and a report prepared with Assocham, another consulting firm, has stated about China installing 30 robots for every 10,000 industrial workers. For countries like India, where due to illiteracy or incompetent education, a major chunk of population is engaged in manual labour, the threat is horrifying. While we grapple with the job quotient and question our survival, how spared is our personal space from another take over?

Earlier, we have had virtual companions to play games with, be it chess or tennis. Now, we have humanoid robots with different modes programmed in one: family, romantic, as well as sexy. There are AI-designed applications to talk to, like Siri; apps to suggest clothes, like the Echo Look; programmes to teach things, robots helping at work or to dance or to hangout with. So soon, we would have shiny superhumans walking alongside us, going to work, partying, hanging out and what not. The advanced fear could be humans being enslaved by the robots, or a situation when a robot start loving a human and getting adamant as in the film ‘Robot’ or a robot retaliating for losing a game, as in ‘Ra.One’. However, we may remain fortunate if we follow Chatbot’s Life which believes that human intelligence is evolving dynamically and the human cognition cannot be pursued by a humanoid. Whatever, the situation may be, its high time to realise the need to develop newer skills beyond current the analytics, if we are to survive the machinic expansion and still control over the wheels.

 

NO more Argument for an Auto Ride!

The other day, someone posted on my Fb wall about his conversation with an Auto-driver, wherein the latter expressed his dissatisfaction for the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) government in Delhi; and that he regrets his choice of promoting AAP. (Auto-drivers in 2013 have played a key-role in promoting AAP in Delhi, by carrying their posters for free or at cheap rates). Freedom of choice is a fundamental right – and it should be respected, of whoever it may be. However, the wall-post forced me to ask another random auto-driver the reason for the same. He responded:

Kya kaanoon banadiya hai, jisko dekho call kar deta hai or hamara challan karvaa deta hai” (What law they have made? Whoever can call and complain against us, and court then penalizes us with a challan). He added that, ‘it is no more an Aam Aadmi’s (common man) party, but a party that is also filling its pocket from our hard-earned money’.

The Norms

  • It has been a rule in Delhi that no auto-driver should impose unreasonable charges to the passengers, but run by meter only.
  • The day charges and the night charges are different.
    Day: Downing charge is Rs 25 for initial 2 km; further which, Rs 8 for each kilometer.
    Night: Downing charge is Rs 32 and the total fare is 25% above the day fare (11pm-5am).
  • Waiting charge: Rs 30 per hour, charge subjected to a minimum of 15min of wait.
    Luggage: Rs 7.50 for luggage heavier or bigger than shopping bags or small suitcases.
  • Effective since September 2014, no auto-driver can deny going to any place or have favorites for locations, be it a day or night – until they have ‘On-Duty’ board displayed at front. Respecting their wish to be able to go home without inviting a prosecution, they can pick passengers towards their home location only when they display an Off-Duty board with location mentioned on it. The amount of challan for refusal is Rs 2000.
  • If passengers find any auto-driver not running by meter or refusing to go without the ‘Off-Duty’ displayed, the passengers can report to the transport helpline: +91-11-42-400-400. This number is mandatory to be put on the auto as well.
  • The Helpline representative would ask for the vehicle no., origin & destination city and passenger’s credentials (Name, address and mobile no.). S/he would also speak to the auto-driver in valid requests scenarios to either convince him or at least to hear his part as well, and avoid being biased.
  • If the auto-driver is yet stubborn on overcharging, refusal, or running on road without fixing the meter, the helpline registers a complaint, and a reference of the complaint is sent to the passengers’ mobile no. (see image). The passengers after few days get a confirmation call from Traffic line, for successfully procession of the challan.

Auto Complain screenshot.jpg

A Sneak-peak

The increase in the minimum fare from Rs 19 to Rs 25 (since May 4, 2013) and the per kilometre fare from Rs 6.5 to Rs 8 (Rs 4.5 per km in 2010) was followed by a strike due to an increase in CNG price (many auto-drivers did not support the strike as increased fare would have only increased the auto-rentals and not directly benefited them; but they were absent from the road to avoid the violence of hooligans). In 1997, the Supreme Court had stopped issuing of new permits concerning the polluted smokes that the old-autos emitted. This resulted in many autos being bought from black market financiers at a higher cost of up to Rs 6.5 lakh. Many took loans at higher interest rates from the financiers, due to the absence of a bank credit. Overcharging was one way for repaying the loan, afford the CNG conversion that followed, handling the police and feeding their families.

On Nov 19, 2010 SC judges KS Radhakrishnan and CK Prasad allowed permits to 45,000 new auto rickshaws, which dropped black-market permit price from Rs 6.5 lakhs to Rs 2.5 lakhs. In 2015, SC allowed Delhi government to have 1 lakh autos. The government had also tied up with 3 banks (PNB, IndusInd Bank & State Bank Bikaner and Jaipur) for facilitation of loans for auto-drivers – to save them from high interest rates charged by the local financiers.

Many commuters (auto) have had experiences when most auto-drivers either claim that the meter is damaged or simply refuse to go if the passenger denies commuting on their higher prices; drivers even speed-off on mention of locations they don’t wish to go towards. This becomes troublesome especially for patients, senior citizens and pregnant women, who neither can afford a cab nor bear the hassles of the  DTC buses. Others opt for autos to save their time and end-up paying more than what the meter would estimate. The overcharge could have been justified few years ago due to the burdening loan, CNG conversion and less fare. However, with the revision of the fare, issuance of more auto permits, availability of bank credit and where each kilometre doesn’t cost more than Re 1.50 in CNG, and let’s add two or three rupees more on each kilometre for maintenance, rent, road tax, bribe and miscellaneous – is it really fare for an auto driver to charge over Rs 8 for a kilometre?

If one wants to tip the auto-driver, it should be by-choice, not imposed or demanded. This regulation on Delhi auto-rickshaws eases commuting as compared to the neighbouring cities: Noida or Gurgaon, and especially the places in Delhi that the auto-wallas interpret as ‘Out-of-the-world’.

However, immense money, time and mental calm could have been saved, if we would have had equally efficient DTC buses and no potholed roads that annoy auto-drivers more.

On waiting for a bus for long at Anand Lok, when I called the DTC Helpline they replied: ‘Aati hi Hogi…’ (must be on its way). Moreover, many buses indeed don’t stop at all the bus stops. Hope some light be bestowed on that too.

Was it important – Like & Share! Not important – Criticise! Want to contribute, please do – Comment!

Reference links:

  1. http://www.delhi.gov.in/wps/wcm/connect/142d56804c577136b037f6ac8a5ce753/New+Pub.+Not.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&lmod=-369665456
  2. https://delhitrafficpolice.nic.in/public-interface/auto-rickshaw-taxi-fare-calculator/
  3. http://www.ndtv.com/delhi-news/delhi-auto-rickshaw-drivers-start-displaying-no-service-plates-667334
  4. https://kafila.org/2011/11/20/a-few-questions-about-a-few-thousand-new-auto-rickshaws-in-delhi-simon-harding/
  5. https://kafila.org/2010/04/02/the-truth-behind-the-strike/
  6. https://kafila.org/2010/03/24/auto-rickshaws-in-delhi-why-sheila-dikshit%E2%80%99s-comments-are-misguided/

Yes, it is your Disgusting Call Centerrrrr!

Mom returned from the market with loads of clothes and shoes – Puja shopping. While I was excitingly trying them all, she said: “I met Neelam Aunty (name changed). We talked for quite some time. She was asking about you. I told her that you were working at a call centre. And she exclaimed: ‘Chheeee! Chheee! Chheeeeee! Ask her it’s a shabby sector and not to work there anymore’. I could not speak further. You disgusted me!” I packed the newbies back and quietly left the room.

FLASHBACK:

Mom was getting old, plus she could not have worked due to my ailing sister. I was the only hope for a single-parent family. But, I wanted to study. So, I welcomed to work for a Call Centre: good money, financial security, plus night shift – so I could easily continue with my regular studies at day time. I remained sleep deprived until I completed two graduations and two post-graduations –three of which in regular set-up, as I aspired to live a dignified life. Still do!

Six out of seven years of my work experience have been more or less in about six call Centres: for a month or less in few, to about three years in others. Luckily, in the several companies I had worked, I got promoted or was given different responsibilities too fast also – in the last one, I was off-calls in four months, and was looking after site’s customer service score for the next three years.

I started working at eighteen, during the concluding teenage, when I did not even complete my 12th. Still remember, how ambitiously I listed down a wish list of 47-goods to gradually purchase from an internship stipend of Rs. 8000/- a month. Call Centre industry, if has empowered me to be addressed as ‘Mam’ (which I have always opposed), to remake my house from 2 Semi-Pakka room sets to three floors for self and tenants, with my own personalised room now; it has also gifted me a 3% spine disability (office cab accident that was never compensated).

COMING BACK

To everyone who knew us, I was growing exceptionally, well above my family standards and was only committed to social change: speaking in English, knowledge of computer, confident in public speaking, talking about social issues all the time. Thus, perhaps the Aunt could not digest me working at a Call Centre. But, where was her advice when I was helplessly conflicting between my responsibilities and aspirations? Why couldn’t she provide me an equal alternative during these six years? Because, there was none! Or she got scared on foreseeing me as another Nirbhaya (Delhi 2012 Rape victim, who too worked in a Call Centre to support her family while she studied physiotherapy)?

Although, I could myself see some traces of ‘exploitation of labour’ (Marx) in Call Centres, but it remains a refuge for a major Indian youth population. Call Centres in India are the assured employment options for all the English speakers (even average):

  • who graduate from schools and colleges with average marks,
  • who cannot afford further education,
  • who cannot afford to live in a city in pay-outs of other jobs meeting their skills,
  • who support big families,
  • for civil service aspirants who try to meet their financial need while preparing,
  • for the many engineers, the MNCs and technology companies cannot accommodate, yet have to repay the student loans
  • for all those to whom the government cannot promise a secure future… and so forth.

Even interns at Call Centres get a minimum wage unlike in development sector, who would only explore advocacy mechanisms for labour rights.

Now, I have left the Call Centre industry to work in social sector. But, this sector too keeps reiterating the same tenets that of a BPO to me; somehow not letting me feel any different. Be it ‘empathy’ for the customers versus victims, or ‘root cause analyses’ for low customer satisfaction versus the social problems. By the way, ‘positive phraseology’ taught at both the sectors condemn the use of problem, but ‘issue’, since the latter is attached with a solution. Further, an ‘action plan’ is designed in both the sectors and ‘success rate’ is measured at definite time intervals – with different tools though. Call Centres have taught me to ‘analyse and prioritise’ in multiple-issue cases, to ‘change approach’ when Plan A fails to work, to seek ‘feedback’ throughout, to ‘look at micro issues at a macro level’ yet drive change at micro level only (local-regional-national); and, most importantly: ‘to TALK’. All of which I am going to use now at the social sector. So, why would two sectors working primarily on the same principals, have such pole-apart acknowledgements? One should think before vaguely stereotyping – this ‘waste of time’, ‘time pass’ or ‘Chheee Chheee industry’ is fuelling many gas stoves and restoring many smiles, which many highly reputed sectors also cannot  very well do.

Should you Kill your Child?

When in news we hear about any parent, who have miserably hurt their child for the latter’s notoriety, we disgust the act. We consider the accused as either a Psychopath or a victim in need of HELP. Would you Kill your child for their mistakes, misunderstanding or miscommunication? Do you justify horrible punishments when you see terribly notorious kids around you? Then, what happens to our conscience when India too is the parent of the child: KASHMIR?

We are a country that does not even hang a criminal, unless debated multiple times. Then why do some of us justify the barbarian invasion of forces on Kashmir? Why does not our soul stir on seeing the dreadful marks on the victims’ bodies, or the grave loss caused to them – some losing their vision, some their lives… because, they are separatists and intend to divide our ‘sacred mother nation’? Regardless, whether they really want it… and even if they do, why would they want it?

My fellow citizens claim that India is spending so much on Kashmir for its prosperity and sustenance, and for the continuous recovery of losses that the Kashmiris keep damaging. Strangely, no one is introspecting why would one damage their own homeland, their ancestral belonging? And, why would they want to KILL ANYONE without reasons?

Some also justify the unrest Kashmir, AFSPA and what the army is doing to Kashmir, attributing to the atrocious behaviour of  Kashmiri Muslims over Kashmiri Pandits during the insurgency, which finally led to the latter’s displacement in 1989. The facts state something totally different though. It was an extremists-led atrocity, which was indeed opposed by few Kashmiri Muslims, some of whom even provided shelter to the Kashmiri Pandits and few lost their lives while attempting to help. Hadn’t similar migration took place in 1947 too, with atrocities to the Kashmiri Muslims? None is justified, but why communities that have been staying in peace with each other from inception, would wake up one fine day with an unending motive to kill the other for no reason? Doesn’t that indicate to a conspiracy or hate gradually infused to gain political dominance? So, if two brothers fight among each other, to an extent of going to kill the other, what should the parents do – kill one? Or, find out the root cause and mediate!

Kashmiri Muslims demand to be separated – because we have already been separating them with our treatment. Being an eternal part of India, Kashmir is a family member to India, who’s rebel, protest, being influenced by outsiders and so forth has to be looked through the lens of how we would have treated the minuscule of the situation at our respective home. This movement is nothing more than a helpless child demanding to be separated from his parents because he feels insecure with them. He is feeling empathy fatigue with his own parents, and getting sympathy from everywhere else – some unconditional, some with vested interest against the parent (enemies of India), which the child can’t see now.

 The solution would not be this simple though, would need a lot of submission perhaps from India’s end, however, there has to be this holistic approach with intense efforts to make Kashmiris feel deeply associated with us. Recommending chilli-pepper bullets over pellets won’t fix the situation, nor would refusing UN to introspect the situation would hide the agony from the world. Considering the disappointed and agitated state of mind, perhaps it would be difficult to convince them for a peaceful talk. This is where we need a wise and sensitively-thought action plan, and representatives.

References of some personal accounts of Kashmiri Pandits:

  1. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/kashmirtheforgottenconflict/2011/07/201176134818984961.html
  2. http://blogs.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Swaminomics/a-tale-of-two-ethnic-cleansings-in-kashmir/

Does India comply with Literacy Standards?

We choose representatives in the government to serve our country, not only to take it to the newer heights, but primarily to work on the hindrances for basic living standards. Education lays the foundation stone for the development of any country, which in turn contributes to the economy. Thus, educated citizens make the most viable resource for any government. The literacy rate of India is 74.04% (2011 Census report), however, the quality of education has been notably astonishing, with many on-paper literates not complying with the standards of their highest education (ASER Report 2014).

Education is a public good, hence should be a State subject: from school to universities. Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen has said that the development of a country is not marked by its GDP, but its capability. It becomes the government’s responsibility to work on education from pre-primary to the higher studies.

The main areas that have emerged as obstacles for India to establish a complete literate citizenry are as follows:

  1. Improper Infrastructure and lack of Incentives

Regardless of 69 years of independence, a proper infrastructure for education is not uniformly found in the entire country, especially at rural or remote areas: school building, utilities, seating etc.

For small villages, there is one Panchayat for five. The benefits that a Panchayat representative receives from the government, for encouraging education among the villagers, gets limited to the village the representative belongs to and a little around, or where the Panchayat itself is situated. Thus, the far away areas from the Panchayat get deprived of the government incentives and unaware of the government schemes.

Furthermore, the students, especially underprivileged or with no literate background find it hard to comprehend with the course content, which incurs the need for separate tuition classes, which not everyone can afford.

  1. Scarcity of Resources

Regardless of the number of schemes the government run or the free institutions government set up, education is never complete free. The families have to spend either in buying stationary, as admission or exam fee, tuition fee, travel, uniform etc. Many states run schemes like mid-day meal, free books and uniform, travel vouchers: which are some relief though, however still not a complete solution, especially for extreme BPL families.

  1. Lack of Interest

It has been observed that many parents do not send their kids to schools for they do not really find the need. Thus, they are broadly not connected to the outcomes of education. Thus, it becomes critically important for the government to create a vision for education among the parents. Equally important is to develop interest among the facilitators or teachers, so that do not limit their work to waged work.

  1. Early drop-outs

The number of students that get admitted in a school is phenomenally higher than the ones graduating from the school, or colleges. There have been significant drop-outs at Class 5, 8, 10 and 12, and so forth in colleges too. These drop outs have been observed both in rural as well as urban areas. In an interview with Child Development Project Officer (CPDO) of village Badgaon (Udaipur, Rajasthan): Harsha Sharma, she has exclaimed that a lot of villages do not even have secondary and senior secondary schools and colleges. Another reason has been marriages (especially for girls), need for the family to have another employed member, lost trust from the end-vision, and so forth.

  1. Skill development and professional courses

The only reason parents admit their children in schools and children seek to pursue education is for their vision to live a better life. The issue arises when this vision gets disillusioned with time, especially with the fair-play of interest versus money: not all areas would be of interest to the students, and not all interest areas would be money-making – this added with uncertainty of employment. Thus, burden of livelihood dominates over talent and interest and accounts to drop-outs, or unwillingness to join schools at the first place. Even worse are the additional trainings and equipments required in respective skills, and the cost attached to it. This accounts to the reason of scarcity as well as lack of plurality in the field of medicine, art and films, sports etc.: there may be enough will and talent, but lack of support for pursuance.

Private institutions with sole purpose of profit, on the other hand, put baits of fulfilling dreams to attract students, however, fail to provide quality education. Similar happens in terms of quality with budget institutions too, which leads income inequality at the end. An MBA from an IIM would lead to a six-figure salary or more and that from any less known institution, among whom are those who have pushed ends to graduate, would initially strive for a job, and then end up with peanuts.

  1. Absence of Analysis

Many schemes that generate from the government’s end do not reach to its supposed beneficiaries. Similarly schemes, syllabi and infrastructure cannot be universally right. Any best practice adopted from X not necessarily would be equally good for Y, in fact can be much worse. Thus, imposing certain courses or infrastructure and investing on it just because they have had great outcomes somewhere is not really a great idea. A continuous feedback and analysis is important to capture – from all the stakeholders; and more important is implementation and follow-up.

Above issues aside, quality of education is directly linked to the resources allocated. Thus, fund allocation plays a major role in contributing to all the above bullets. Harsha Sharma (CPDO, Badgaon) has circled budget as a key reason for leaving out on gaps.

Other than budget, clearly seen is the sharing of responsibility with civil society organizations, who if not can completely resolve the finance issue, can at least contribute for equipped human resources: to willfully facilitate, assess and coordinate. Although, the government has been helping NGOs in various ways, however, the aid so far is menial, in terms of funds as well as policies. For instance, the recent RTE policy inhibits the working of the budget schools that provide quality education at minimal rate in areas completely deprived of a quality education set-up by the government. Since they are budget schools they cannot be provide all the facilities, yet they emerge as hope out of nowhere.

Childhood is like a wet-clay that only proper education can shape. The apt period for nurturing great values is schooling. To develop fruitful attitude in the being to be, the focus has to be from the beginning: from understanding child psychology, providing proper learning, at home, school and surrounding, indentifying their vision and talent, counsel them the path to follow and supporting them throughout. The way government would contribute in the development of the well-being, the country would enjoy the outcome: good or bad, embarassing or proud.

Independence Film Festival

Directorate of Film Festivals in collaboration with Ministry of Defense organized ‘Independence Film Festival: Azadi 70 Saal – Yaad Karo Qurbaani (70 years of independence, recall the sacrifice): Aug 12 – 18, 2016 at Siri Fort Auditorium Complex. The festival marked the celebration of the glorious 69th year of Indian independence. It was subjected to screen slew of patriotic films, released in different languages: Hindi, English, Telugu, Tamil, Punjabi etc. The films were based on the roles played by freedom fighters (Gandhi, Sardar, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose etc), the situations before independence (Lagaan), and other stories that may pump nationalism in the veins (like Mary Kom, Chak De). The cherry on the cake was that the entry to the screening was absolutely FREE.

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Independence Film Festival Screening list
 Just when one would assume by the brochure, if screening films like Sardar, Veer Savarkar, Shaheed Udham Singh were an attempt to oppose the Gandhi-Nehruvian ideologies – the opening film Gandhi, shunned the misconception: making the film festival really multi-perspectival. Bhagat Singh, Subhash Chandra Bose, Udham Singh, Veer Savarkar and so forth were the eminent personalities who contributed in the freedom struggle, as much as Gandhi, Nehru and others did. The contributions and ideologies may have differed, where one believed in ‘Tit for Tat’, and the other feared if ‘an eye to an eye would turn the world blind’. Which one was appropriate then: we can’t tell, since we are not at ‘the time’. Which is ethical: is also hard to decide, since, if one laid the basis of Civil Rights Movement in the America, the other was praised as ‘just’ for the culprits of Jallianwalan Bagh massacre. Which one of them fetched us freedom is also debatable: perhaps either one of them, or both, or none! Thus, the role played by these heroes can be largely appreciated as well as criticised studying the evidences available; and criticism on one part does not reduce the significance on the other.

Cinemas can be mirrors to crucial truths. Although, it was an incredible approach to open the history of Indian freedom movement to the public, yet, the motive remained incomplete as few of the regional language films did not have subtitles.

Moreover, there should have been screenings of films like Swades or Nayak too, to motivate youth participation in the nation development: films that restore faith in the system, and encourage the youth to country rather abroad . More than digging the past, the need of the hour is to shape the future.

It was a commendable effort by the organisers and hope to see more of such initiatives. Everyone should attend such screenings, learn from the historical narration and critically analyse while making any opinion.